Pathological Pastries

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2 years ago
691 notes


Gemini by Haste-Malaise on deviantART

2 years ago
82 notes


This is so incredibly rare that you would think Siamese twin fish attached at the stomach would never survive. But at eight months old, these two Nile Tilapia fish in Thailand have found the perfect way to cope with life upside down… or the right way up if you’re the lucky twin. The bigger fish protects its smaller sibling on the bottom, while it in turn looks for food.

2 years ago
45 notes

2 years ago
102 notes


Postmortem fingerprinting. It is essential that experienced technicians obtain postmortem fingerprints in all homicides or potential homicides.

2 years ago
34 notes


Fading livor mortis.

2 years ago
57 notes


(Photo above is of Roberto, a young boy diagnosed with CIPA)

What is CIPA?

Congenital insensitivity to pain with anhidrosis (CIPA) has two characteristic features: the inability to feel pain and temperature, and decreased or absent sweating (anhidrosis). This condition is also known as hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV. The signs and symptoms of CIPA appear early, usually at birth or during infancy, but with careful medical attention, affected individuals can live into adulthood.

An inability to feel pain and temperature often leads to repeated severe injuries. Unintentional self-injury is common in people with CIPA, typically by biting the tongue, lips, or fingers, which may lead to spontaneous amputation of the affected area. In addition, people with CIPA heal slowly from skin and bone injuries. Repeated trauma can lead to chronic bone infections (osteomyelitis) or a condition called Charcot joints, in which the bones and tissue surrounding joints are destroyed.

Normally, sweating helps cool the body temperature. However, in people with CIPA, anhidrosis often causes recurrent, extremely high fevers (hyperpyrexia) and seizures brought on by high temperature (febrile seizures).

In addition to the characteristic features, there are other signs and symptoms of CIPA. Many affected individuals have thick, leathery skin (lichenification) on the palms of their hands or misshapen fingernails or toenails. They can also have patches on their scalp where hair does not grow (hypotrichosis). About half of people with CIPA show signs of hyperactivity or emotional instability, and many affected individuals have intellectual disability. Some people with CIPA have weak muscle tone (hypotonia) when they are young, but muscle strength and tone become more normal as they get older.

How common is CIPA?

CIPA is a rare condition; however, the prevalence is unknown.

What genes are related to CIPA?

Mutations in the NTRK1 gene cause CIPA. The NTRK1 gene provides instructions for making a receptor protein that attaches (binds) to another protein called NGFβ. The NTRK1 receptor is important for the survival of nerve cells (neurons).

The NTRK1 receptor is found on the surface of cells, particularly neurons that transmit pain, temperature, and touch sensations (sensory neurons). When the NGFβ protein binds to the NTRK1 receptor, signals are transmitted inside the cell that tell the cell to grow and divide, and that help it survive. Mutations in the NTRK1 gene lead to a protein that cannot transmit signals. Without the proper signaling, neurons die by a process of self-destruction called apoptosis. Loss of sensory neurons leads to the inability to feel pain in people with CIPA. In addition, people with CIPA lose the nerves leading to their sweat glands, which causes the anhidrosis seen in affected individuals.

What other names do people use for CIPA?

  • hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy, type 4
  • hereditary sensory and autonomic neuropathy type IV
  • HSAN4
  • HSAN type IV

How do people inherit CIPA?

This condition is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern, which means both copies of the gene in each cell have mutations. The parents of an individual with an autosomal recessive condition each carry one copy of the mutated gene, but they typically do not show signs and symptoms of the condition.

2 years ago
27 notes

2 years ago
32 notes

Dreaming of Another World, Guinevere van Seenus by Tim Walker for Vogue Italia March 2011

(Source: adjectival)

2 years ago
11,623 notes

(Source: kongsprout)

2 years ago
1,280 notes